sábado, 7 de diciembre de 2013

STATES OF THE MATTER

This is a clil unit for chemistry 2nd ESO.
Author: Pilar García Tellaeche


STATES OF THE MATTER (Chemistry 2nd ESO)

           
1. LEARNING OUTCOMES/EVALUATION CRITERIA
To learn the three different states of the matter and their differences at the microscopical point of view.
To interpret a heating curve and its different stages.

2. SUBJECT CONTENT
Matter is made of particles.
Characteristics of solids, liquids and gases.
The particles in solids, liquids and gases: the kinetic model of the matter.
Physical transformations of a substance: characteristics.

3. LANGUAGE CONTENT/COMMUNICATION
VOCABULARY:
Specific vocabulary: Solid, liquid, gas, add/remove energy, kinetic energy, melting, boiling, melting point, boiling point, vibration, motion, particles, temperature, bond, heating curve, to heat, graph

General vocabulary: to increase, to rise, fast, slow,break dow, to sketch, to describe, to compare, to explain, to interpret, to label

STRUCTURES
Use of compartives/superlatives:
The faster the movement of particles , the higher the temperature.
As more energy is provided, the particles in a liquid move faster
As we heat a solid, particles vibrate more vigorously.

4. CONTEXTUAL ELEMENT
Find out examples of  pure water in the three states, as solid (ice snow, frost), liquid (a running river, the rain), gas (the steam coming from the kettle when we boil water, the water gas contained in the air, plants and people release water vapour into the air,…). Describe situations in daily life where you have changes of state (snow in the mountains melts in spring, water evaporates off wet clothes hanging on a clothesline, etc.)

5. COGNITIVE THINKING
To understand the kinetic theory on a microscopical level, to analyse the dofferents states of the matter applying the kinetic theory
       Final revision quiz: final game (the day before the exam) with different categories (Easy-peasy, True/False, Definition, Difficult, What are we talking about?, Extreme, Normal...).  The purpose of this activity is revising all the contents of the unit, as a game. It is also a tool for me to evaluate their oral competence.


6. TASKS/ ACTIVITIES
_ Brainstorming,
_ Vocabulary quizlets and vocabulary worksheets (filling the gaps, matching activities, trae and false activities)
_ Watch videos and answer questions orally
_  Read a text and answer questions about the text
_ Do an experiment in the lab, interpret a graph and write a reporto n the experiment.
_ Worksheets about the matter and the heating curve.

7. METHODOLOGY
The methodology will be active and participative. Students will work in groups to practice their oral, they will listen to videos, write reports and manipulate lab equipment.

ORGANIZATION AND TIMING
-SESSION 1: In the first session we introduce  the concepto of matter , the three states of the matter and properties of solids, liquids and gases. We watch the video at youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AVY5aKpy55s

Students will do the following experiment to understand properties of the matter:
Materials they need: 3 plastics bags, a stone, one glass of water.
1. Students put a stone in the first bag and seal it. We ask the students to squeeze and press the bag. What happens? Wel et the students try to bend the stone and change its shape. Ask the students why they cannot bend the stone.
2. Pour the water in the second plastic bag and seal it. Ask the students to gently squeeze the bag. Does the shape and the volumen of water change?
3. Blow air into the tirad plastic bag and seal it. Ask the students to gently squeeze the bag. Does the shape of the bag change? Ask them to open the bag and release the air. What happens?
Students will do the puzzle http://edhelper.com/Matter353.htm
Students do worksheet 1.
These activities and the discusión that follows present a gtood introduction of the states of the matter.


-SESSION 2:   We are going to introduce the change of state by watching the video :http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/content/keystage3/chemistry/pc/learningsteps/WATLC/launch.html
The video has a quiz the students can answer in pairs.

-SESSION 3: Students have to read the article about the matter and answer the questions (in pairs). The articles is  in: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/matter/matter-article_WMTBN.pdf


-SESSION 4: In this session we introduce the kinetic theory and the fact that changes of states involve an exchange of energy. Students watch the video

Students can do worksheet 3

-SESSION 5: Students go to the lab to obtain experimentally the meeting curve of the ice. At the end, students need to Plot a graph interpret it and write a report.

-SESSION 6:  Students work out worksheets about the heating curve and general exercises. Final revision, a quiz game: http://www.softschools.com/quizzes/science/states_of_matter/quiz413.html   

8. RESOURCES/MATERIALS
-Videos:






-Lab document
-Vocabulary activities:


9. KEY COMPETENCES
Learn to learn, oral and written skills in english, autonomy and initiative

10. EVALUATION
Oral skills and auditive skills will be evaluated daily by observing the interaction between the students themselves and between the students and the teacher during the lesso.
Reading and writing skills will be evaluated with the students activities and worksheets, the lab report and a final test.

I leave below some of the material I have used in my lessons:

Student  Lab Activity

Materials:

safety glasses
lab coat or apron
stopwatch or timer
hot plate
small beaker
ice
thermometer
plastic thermometer clamp
graph paper

Procedure:
  1. Put on safety goggles and lab coat or apron.
  2. Use the data chart provided to record time and temperature. The time column starts with 0. The temperature column is blank. You will record the temperatures in the temperature column during the investigation.
  3. Fill the small beaker with ice. Insert the thermometer. Wait 2 minutes. Observe and record the starting temperature (0 time) in the data table.
  4. Place the beaker of ice on the hot plate. Position the thermometer in the clamp so that the bulb of the thermometer does not touch the bottom of the beaker.
  5. Turn the hot plate on high and start the timer. After 30 seconds, record the thermometer reading without removing the thermometer from the beaker. (DO NOT TOUCH THE HOT PLATE !!!!!!)
  6. Continue to record the temperature on the chart every 30 seconds.
  7. Make a note when the ice has melted and when the water begins boiling.

Analysis:
Write your data in the following table:

Time
Temperature




























Prepare a graph from your data that includes the following information:

  1. Label the x-axis with the time (in minutes). This is your independent variable. Label the y-axis as temperature (in degrees Celsius). This is your dependent variable.
  2. Plot your points using your recorded data.
  3. Label the 5 areas on your graph: solid (S), liquid (L), gas (G), freezing point/melting point FP/MP and condensation/boiling point (CP/BP).
  4. Trace, with colored pencils, the following parts of the line on your graph: slowest molecular motion (in red), fastest molecular motion (in green).
  5. DON'T FORGET TO TITLE YOUR GRAPH!!!!!!!!
6.   You graph should look like stair steps not a straight line.

Conclusions

Explain what is happening to the water molecules in the flat areas of the line on your graph during the phase changes from solid to liquid and liquid to gas.





When the ice is melting is it releasing heat or absorbing heat? Explain your answer.






If you put the liquid water into the freezer and recorded its temperature as it refroze, would it be absorbing heat or releasing heat? Explain your answer.





Explore Further (for extra credit).

Research what is occurring when you have a fever. What part does water play in regulating your body temperature? What happens to the chemical bonds of enzymes when exposed to too much heat
The graph was drawn from data collected as a substance was heated at a constant rate. Use the graph to answer the following questions.
At point A, the beginning of observations, the substance exists in a solid state. Material in this phase has _______________ volume and _____________ shape. With each passing minute, _____________ is added to the substance. This causes the molecules of the substance to ____________ more rapidly which we detect by a ________________ rise in the substance. At point B, the temperature of the substance is ______°C. The solid begins to __________. At point C, the substance is completely ____________ or in a ___________ state. Material in this phase has _______________ volume and _____________ shape. The energy put to the substance between minutes 5 and 9 was used to convert the substance from a ___________ to a ___________.
Between 9 and 13 minutes, the added energy increases the ______________ of the substance. During the time from point D to point E, the liquid is ___________. By point E, the substance is completely in the __________ phase. Material in this phase has _____________ volume and ___________ shape. The energy put to the substance between minutes 13 and 18 converted the substance from a ___________ to a ___________ state. Beyond point E, the substance is still in the ______________ phase, but the molecules are moving _______________ as indicated by the increasing temperature.

Worksheets
Worksheet (STATES OF THE MATTER)
Glossary:
To pour: verter            to squash: aplastar                        shape: forma

1)   Complete the following grid with the Word yes or no

PROPERTY
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
Easy to pour



Easy to squash



Fixed shape



Fixed volume




2)   Choose the correct answer a,b,c or d
2.1 How are particles arranged in solids?
a) close together
b) very far apart
c) fairly well separated
d) fairly close together

2.2. How do particles move in a liquid?
a) They move one to each other
b) very quickly, in all directions
c) They vibrate in fixed positions
d)They cannot move

2.3.. Which state of the Mater has the strongest force between particles?
a) Gas
b) Liquid
c) Solid
d) Steam

2.4. Which state of the matter has a definite volumen but not a definite shape?
a) Gas
b) Liquid
c) Steel
d) Solid

3)   Classify the following material into solids (s), liquids (l)  or gases (g):
Sand, milk, steel, carbon dioxide, wine, beer, paper


4)   Complete the sentences using the following words:
More, vibrate, far, particles, movement, vigorously, gas, more, gas, solid, volume, quickly, faster (2), expands, liquid.
In a solid ………………………………..are closed together. They are in fixed positions but they can ……………………….. When a solid is heated the particles vibrate more…………… …so they take up …………… space.
The particles in a ………………….. are quite close together but they can move one from each other. This means that liquids have a definite ……………………… but not a fixed shape. When a liquid is heated, particles in the liquid move …………..
In a gas, particles are very ……….  apart.  They are in constant ………………….

5)   Match the letters with the numbers
1. During a change of state
A is used to break the Bonds  between the molecules
2. During the meeting, the heat provided
B. the substance is in two states, as a solid and as a liquid
3. During the meeting porches
C. the temperature does not change
The meeting point of water is
D. condensation
The change od state from gas to liquid is called
E. 100ºC




















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